Authorization in Rails

Here's a review of several authorization add-on's for Rails. Whereas "authentication" refers to managing user login credentials, "authorization" is about managing role-based permissions to access specific areas of your site. [May 15, added Super Simple Authorization to the list]

Not everyone is clear on the distinction between "authentication" and "authorization". Basically authentication manages a list of users and their sessions, handles the login process by checking credentials (e.g. password), and registration. You can then restrict access to areas of your site based on whether a user is logged in or not. For Ruby on Rails applications, you can get authentication with the ActsAsAuthenticated ("AAA") or RestfulAuthentication plug-ins (among others), or build your own.

Authorization adds granularity. In addition to simply asking if you're logged in, different users can have different permissions , or "roles". Thus normal Users may be able to post comments, Moderators may be able to edit/delete comments, and Administrators may have full admin capability such as the ability to modify/remove users.

Here is a survey of a number of authorization add-ons available.

Super Simple Authorization

I recently watched the RailsCast #20 "Restricting Access" and decided to add it to this article. So here it is, at the top of our list.

If you have a User table (using AAA or RA) you can extend the table with an "admin" attribute, and then query current_user.admin? to test for authorization. Simple enough. You could extend this idea by having different booleans for editor, moderator and other roles you may require.

The screencast goes even simpler. If you really only want to restrict access to specific admin functions on an otherwise public site, you may not even need a Users table and registration at all. Instead your login page just asks the user for a password, which you store in the current session. Then you use an admin? method (to the application controller) which compares this against a hardcoded password.

Authorization Recipe

"Authorizing Users with Roles", Recipe 32 in Rails Recipes by Chad Fowler. (Published June 2006).

Builds from an existing User model, as described in Recipe 31 "Authenticating Your Users", or generated with AAA.

This recipe builds two new models for Roles and Rights, such that Users have Roles, Roles have Rights: (HABTM = has_and_belongs_to_many)

  • User HABTM roles
  • Role HABTM users
  • Role HABTM rights
  • Right HABTM roles

A right specifies a Controller name and Action name. Add a before_filter in your controllers to check_authorization, which determines whether the current user has rights to the incoming action call. If not he's redirected to an error page.

Simple enough, and bare bones. The implementation is not RESTful but that wouldn't be hard to change. More complexity is left as an exercise to the reader.



The simple_access_control plugin is basically the same as described above by Chad Fowler, offered in a plug-in, if you prefer. Tests are provided.




(Revision 146, February 2006, very low activity, no forum)

Like the aforementioned, the acl_system2 plugin provides simple declarative authorization for protecting controller/actions using roles. It provides a flexible permissions string parser that appears quite convenient. For example, a controller can declare:

access_control [:new, :create, :update, :edit] => '(admin | user | moderator)',
:delete => 'admin'

while allows users, moderators, and admins to create and update items, but only admins to delete items. You can specify callback methods for redirecting or doing other stuff (e.g. setting flash messages) when access is permitted or denied. A helper method, restrict_to, is provided for views, e.g.

<% restrict_to "(admin | moderator) & !blacklist" do %>
  <%= link_to "Admin & Moderator only link", :action =>'foo' %>
<% end %> 

ActiveACL Plugin




(Release 0.2.1, December 2006, very low activity)

ActiveACL (as in active control lists) is based on PhpGacl and claims to be highly scalable, having optimized database access and caching. Permissions range from simple (controller/action) to object level, are assigned at runtime, and may be grouped and inherited.

To me, the documentation and implementation seems overly complicated and confusing. ActiveACL creates and manages ten (10) tables in the database. The phpgacl manual is helpful though. Here's how I think it works (mapping their terminology to more common words):

Let's say we group our users ("requesters") into roles ("groups"). Each user may or may not access different objects ("targets") on the site. Targets can be models, individual objects in a model, controllers, and individual actions in a controller.

We assign access restrictions to each role group, and/or to individual requesters; those lower in the tree override permissions higher up. So if "John" is an "Moderator" with access to all Articles, we can keep him from accessing a specific article (e.g. "Privacy Policy") by creating an access-denied for that one instance.

ActiveACL adds another table, called Section which is simply a way of categorizing access objects for the user interface (e.g. "Rooms", "Floors", "People") but have nothing to do with actual groups in the tree. (This seems to add unnecessary complexity because our models most likely already have attributes for organizing large data sets).

ActiveACL can be used not just for managing user groups/roles, but other application domains like server permissions, or maybe even modeling of engineering constraints.

Authorization Plugin



(Version 1.0, September, 2006, low activity)

The Authorization plug-in provides role based authorization, along with a number of Railsey sugar like dynamic methods and a little grammer parser that potentially enhances the programming experience and readability of your code (a la domain specific languages, DSL). It is compatible with ActsAsAuthenticated plugin out of the box. Documentation is comprehensible, and good test coverage is provided.

User objects just need to implement a has_role? method, using the provided acts_as_authorized_user. And models then use acts_as_authorizable.

Roles can be authorized for the entire application, a model class, or a specific object. The plugin provides a way of checking authorization at the class or instance method level using permit and permit? methods. It also provides english-like dynamic methods like "user.is_manager_of project" (where "user" acts as authorized, "manager" is a role, and "project" is an authorizable model). You can specify how control is redirected if authorization is denied.

Roles are set by has_role and accepts_role methods, with optional scope (such as user.has_role 'site_admin' , or user.has_role 'moderator', group). Models set roles for specific users (such as project.accepts_role 'manager', user). Then, dynamic methods let you say things like user.is_manager_of? project





(Version 0.2.0, April 2007, active)

The Goldberg plugin is an example of a high level generator that includes both authorization and authentication. It's like a framework built on top of the Rails framework, but actually sits beside it because you continue to develop your Rails app as usual, Goldberg does not interfere. You don't have to write any Goldberg-specific code in your application or use its API.

You define Roles (which can be has subgroup hierarchy), and assign permissions to the roles. A permssion is a controller/action that the role may access. Then you assign users to roles.

Goldberg installs as application-wide before-filters (if not exactly, at least conceptually) that examines the routed controller/action against its database of permissions ("credentials") for the current logged in user. Credentials are stored in the current session minimizing the need for database access between page loads.

That's just the beginning. Goldberg also provides a little hierarchical page manager (approaching a CMS) for static content; a menu manager for redirecting to pages or any arbitrary controller/action; and a theme system for dynamically re-skinning your application. It does not impose a specific markup on you, however. Finally there is an API for custom access control within your application.

Defense in Depth -- Model Level Security



(Release 0.0.9 November, 2005, inactive)

Second level of defense. You still use your views to hide links to unauthorized actions, and set before_filter's in controllers to prevent unauthorized action methods from executing. But should someone get through, the model can also provide security.

The ModelSecurity gem is a generator. It provides for example let_read, let_write, and let_access added to model declarations, allow fine grained permissions to a whole model or separate attributes.

Includes a user model and UserSuport mixin. (Seems to been written before AAA so integration with AAA requires investigation).

Includes a ModelSecurityHelper which makes fields conform to the model security settings (eg makes form fields hidden or read-only).

Looks like a well thought-out generalized solution. My concern is the performance overhead this generalization requires, whether it plays well with various other helpers, AJAX, etc. Maybe its too scaffold oriented, and simply just overkill.


If your requirements are pretty simple, just a few roles like Visitor, User, and Admin, and don't need a lot of granularity (just control access to specific controller/actions) then you could use the convenient acl_system2, or just roll your own.

If you're looking for a high level, well designed tool to build fairly conventional sites quickly in Rails, then Goldberg is a good shot. It has a lot of commonly needed features built in. Why rebuild it yourself each time?

On the other hand, if you're building an application with more complex authorization requirements, the Authorization plugin seems a very good bet. For most people it may be overkill. But any kind of groupware or social networking site may benefit from this one.



by Valery on May 17, 2007


Very nice overview, thanks!

i am trying to get running some ACL plugin/gem under Hobo and spent a lot of time trying to get Simple Access Control plugin running :-/

Perhaps, i give up with S.A.C. and try acl_system2 now

by Bill Kocik on Sep 19, 2007


Just as an FYI - I'm resurrecting acl_system2, with the blessings of its original author. It's new home is here:


-Bill (bkocik at gmail dot com)

by Stephen McCants on Oct 29, 2007


Very nice overview. I had done my own Google search and evaluation, but had missed several of the ones you list here.


by ricsrock on Dec 13, 2007

Re: Authorization in Rails

Did I see role_requirement in this article? Great plugin. Simple. Powerful. I'm using it in my project with no problems and great results. Easy to implement model-object security as well. Check it out: http://code.google.com/p/rolerequirement/

by christoph on Jul 19, 2008


Is the information provided here still valid ?

by vince on Aug 07, 2008

Re: Authorization in Rails

yep but acl_system2 is hosting on github now

by PhilT on Jan 28, 2009


Thought I'd update this as I was looking for information and just found a couple, more recent options. Take a look at AuthLogic and also Lockdown. Both seem pretty popular these days.

by Trejkaz on Mar 10, 2010

Re: Authorization in Rails

The one thing that continues to bug me about all these systems is that they are not DRY.

I spend all this time specifying on my controller the types of user who are permitted to access a resource, and then over in the view I have to say the same thing all over again.

I am thinking it would make more sense to make a conditional link_to which determines which controller and action will be called, then asks that controller if the action is accessible, and only shows the link if it is. A lot of these authorisation systems do have enough state information to be able to do this, so it's astonishing that nobody has completed the last part of the exercise.

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Another 22 workers were subsequently found to have dangerously high levels of mercury in their bodies, the report said. [url=http://www.gabsoft.it]tiffany outlet[/url] The special administrative region will explore the theme "Hong Kong - the Infinite City," with a focus on its urban transport network, advanced scientific facilities, financial and trade systems, multinational culture and sustainable high-quality urban life. [url=http://www.loofenlee.com]Tiffany Outlets[/url] He invested 1.7 million yuan in six funds in 2006 and 2007 and collected 2.4 million yuan in profits. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/airmax.php]air max[/url] Like children his age, Zhang also hopes to go to a kindergarten. Fortunately, this wish may well come true. FEWER visitors than expected were at the Expo site yesterday as Shanghai sweltered on the hottest day since summer officially began last Thursday.

His father made a huge illuminated sign imploring passers-by to "Look for my son" and offered a 100,000 yuan (US$15,165) reward at his store in Shenzhen. He also began a blog and joined forces with other parents in the same situation. [url=http://www.boxepos.co.uk]mulberry handbags[/url] The conference was also held to mobilize local governments, as it was video-conferenced in 1,125 counties across the nation. [url=http://www.orylis.fr]douduone pjs[/url] Local airlines are also adding extra flights to and from Xiamen and Fuzhou to cater for affected travelers. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/hollisterpascher.php]hollister homme[/url] Buses commissioned to serve the World Expo were brought into early service to ferry passengers from Metro stations to cemeteries over the weekend. [url=http://www.leboileau.fr]abercrombie pas[/url] There were 17 mass food poisoning incidents last year, up 30.77 percent from a year before, involving 467 people but no fatalities.

A SENIOR official in southern China said today that dilapidated environment protection equipment was mainly to blame for a lead poisoning crisis that sickened more than 40 people at the Huanjiang steel plant in Hechi City. [url=http://www.jobsmidsouth.com]Pandora Jewelry[/url] Chinese Vice Premier Hui Liangyu has urged fire departments to dispatch professional fire-fighters, after nine fire-fighters died, mostly volunteers, and seven others were injured in the fire yesterday. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/monclerpascher.php]veste moncler[/url] But Zhang was soon criticized as a fraudster as the medical university denied he had studied there and ministry officials denied he was one of its experts. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/abercrombie.php]hollister france[/url] The construction company responsible for the renovation, the China Construction Eighth Engineering Division, sent dozens of machines to demolish the fallen barrier. Witnesses said the car was being driven at high speed. Three people inside were trapped and police and firefighters had to use cutting equipment to free them from the wreckage.

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by bletqxjer on Dec 17, 2014

quella della Pubblica amministrazione

Earlier this month, Hu began to serve Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province, as dean of its school of communication for a four-year period. On December 18 she delivered her inaugural speech, emphasizing the Internet challenge to traditional media. [url=http://www.gabsoft.it]tiffany co[/url] The workers, all from the coastal province of Shandong, will file the lawsuit against Mitsubishi Materials and its subsidiaries in a local court before September 18, when Chinese mark the 79th anniversary of the Japanese invasion of China. [url=http://www.loofenlee.com]Tiffany Jewelry[/url] An expert rescue team led by Wang Shuhe, deputy director of the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety, has arrived at the site. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/airmax.php]nike tn[/url] It is based on the last digit of the license plate with, for example, vehicles with a last digit of 2 or 7 having to be off the road on Monday. The five new patients, all under treatment at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, were in stable condition last night, the bureau said.

The shale sand and erosion common to the area make collapses likely, said Wen Junliang, chief engineer of the company. [url=http://www.boxepos.co.uk]mulberry sale[/url] TWO policemen in south China have been arrested after they allegedly ignored and released a drunk man who had surrendered to officers after killing a woman and her two sons. [url=http://www.orylis.fr]parajumpers pas[/url] PART of a forest designated for flood protection has been felled to make room for a two-story government office building, according to a report. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/hollisterpascher.php]hollister homme[/url] THREE new exhibits will open to the public next year at the mausoleum of China's first emperor Qin Shi Huang in northwest China's Shaanxi Province, home of the famous terracotta army. [url=http://www.leboileau.fr]abercrombie pas[/url] Currently there are 189 ticket outlets in the city, more than double the 90 there were in 2005, Shanghai Morning Post reported today.

Vicente Loscertales, secretary-general of the French International Expositions Bureau, said: "China has been able to fully interpret and to put into practice the core values of education, innovation, cooperation which are the foundation on which an Expo develops its legacy." [url=http://www.jobsmidsouth.com]Pandora Jewelry[/url] An initial probe indicated that the bus was speeding and overloaded when the accident happened. The victims said the coach was privately owned and operated. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/monclerpascher.php]veste moncler[/url] Qian's body was cremated after the ceremony. He died of illness in Beijing on October 31 at age 98. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/abercrombie.php]hollister france[/url] In recent years the Central Party School and indeed the whole Communist Party system have not had much interaction with the outside world but this is something we are trying to change, said Chen Baosheng, vice president of the school. "Our Party has nothing to hide." From September 13 to October 6, more than 120 eateries, from restaurants established for more than 100 years to small dumpling soup bars, will participate in the event.

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by bletoirer on Dec 19, 2014

oramai quasi quotidiano per la verità, dello sforamento operato nel 2003 dalla Germania dei parametri imposti dai Trattati

The new case in Guangdong -- a female college student-- left Venezuela Tuesday and flew to Guangzhou, Guangdong's capital, Wednesday via Paris, and her relative drove her home in Foshan City, the provincial health department said. [url=http://www.gabsoft.it]tiffany milano[/url] Reservoirs around which Guizhou's hydro stations are located have dried up, reducing the province's daily hydro power output by 28.5 percent compared to the same period last year, said Zhang Quanyi, an official with the economic and informationization committee of Guizhou. [url=http://www.loofenlee.com]Tiffany Outlets[/url] Air China and China Eastern Airlines, the major operators on the route, were each told to park a backup plane in Beijing and at Shanghai's Hongqiao International Airport to ensure normal operations in the event of problems. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/airmax.php]tn pas[/url] The prosecutors said Lin had attacked one girlfriend and caused her death in 1983. He was sentenced to death with a reprieve but was later released on medical parole. After that Lin seriously wounded another girlfriend and was sentenced to 16 years in jail for attempted murder. Lin was released in 2006. According to the ministry, as of 1:30pm yesterday, 7,086 rooms had collapsed and 18,600 were damaged. Around 6,765 hectares of crops were destroyed. Direct economic losses were estimated at 1.54 billion yuan (US$224.9 million).

In Harbin, capital of the neighboring Heilongjiang Province, the renovation of 20 downtown apartment blocks has helped save energy while also giving the city a face-lift. [url=http://www.boxepos.co.uk]mulberry outlet[/url] Under the plan, the committee and MCA will send a work team within 24 hours to the region to assess damage, help the people affected and guide relief work. [url=http://www.orylis.fr]parajumpers pas[/url] Almost 160,000 people had been stranded on roads or evacuated from their homes, the statement said. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/hollisterpascher.php]hollister france[/url] Another square, designed to provide a venue for major celebrations, will be built on the Bund near Fuzhou Road and provide a prime vantage point for viewing the entire waterfront skyline. [url=http://www.leboileau.fr]abercrombie pas[/url] The insider said Zhang was accused of taking the money from a private travel agency and giving it the monopoly on a popular air route.

AN anonymous letter has again blown the whistle on Chinese football, naming high-ranking officials as directly responsible for the game's dire straits at the national level. [url=http://www.jobsmidsouth.com]Pandora Jewelry[/url] About 20 overseas students in local universities have been invited to take the test tomorrow afternoon, before its official launch next year. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/monclerpascher.php]mocnler pas[/url] Dozens of other senior citizens were enjoying the serenity and angling on a pond at the other side of the plaza. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/abercrombie.php]hollister france[/url] Sometimes I feel pain and burst into tears, she said. "I won't leave hospital now, even if it promised me free treatment. The hospital failed in its promise to some discharged patients as far as I know." The performances include dances, songs, dramas and local games that reveal Shanghai's culture and traditions.

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by bletleler on Dec 19, 2014

quello sull’Europa col ?volto della noia? e il ricordo

The 1,500-year-old Shaolin temple took over the day-to-day management of the four Kunming temples from November 24 last year under a trusteeship agreement over the next 20 years. [url=http://www.gabsoft.it]tiffany co[/url] By 2012, trips from Beijing to most provincial capital cities will take one to eight hours, said Railway Ministry spokesman Wang Yongping. [url=http://www.loofenlee.com]Tiffany Jewelry[/url] Lawyer Jonathan Man said the victims' families had not discussed the amount of compensation they were seeking, but said it should be based on Hong Kong standards. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/airmax.php]air max[/url] Officials said consumers with receipts can call the city's consumer hot line, 12315, if they feel cheated. They will contact the consumers' rights watchdog to trace the suspected taxi. However, the number of migratory birds of passage has declined from 57,000 in 2006 to 25,000 in 2008.

We have a very important and good relationship with China, but from time to time on issues we differ and Rebiya Kadeer coming to Australia is one of those issues, Smith told Sky TV news. "But our relationship will sustain this." [url=http://www.boxepos.co.uk]mulberry outlet[/url] Rescuers found one more body this morning from the rubble of an apartment building that tumbled in Hong Kong yesterday, bringing the death toll to four. [url=http://www.orylis.fr]parajumpers paris[/url] We are not sure whether the baby has normal acoustic nerves before further examinations, said Wu Qinfang, a doctor with the hospital's pediatrics department. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/hollisterpascher.php]hollister femme[/url] Since it opened at the end of last year, the 23-kilometer Metro link has become a key channel for residents of Yangpu and Hongkou districts in the city's northeast to reach the downtown. It also runs across the Huangpu River to Yaohua Road also the riverside in Pudong. [url=http://www.leboileau.fr]abercormbie soldes[/url] This year's Shanghai Pride will follow the spirit of Shanghai Pride 2009, the first event of its kind in the city, and consist mainly of small, indoor events at private venues. However, there will be more in-depth discussions and seminars than at last year's event.

Priest Zhang Shulai and nun Wei Yanhui were found dead on Tuesday in a church in a home for the elderly run by Wei in Wuhai City. [url=http://www.jobsmidsouth.com]Cheap Pandora[/url] The word 'mistake' is too small to cover his 'crimes' against the family, said Geng. "An alcoholic and a gambler, he spent all his money leaving nothing for his wife and daughter." [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/monclerpascher.php]doudoune moncler[/url] Mainland travel agents also will be able to organize group tours for mainland residents heading to Taiwan to transit and stay in Hong Kong. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/abercrombie.php]hollister pas[/url] Kindly remind you that your 1-week free trial has expired. Thank you for your interest in our products. Prosecutors said Zhang hit the victim about the head and face in a frenzied and public attack near the Dongtai Road Antique Market.

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by pinxniteyro on Dec 19, 2014

Ma ora, Renzi lo sa, la palla torna in Italia

A SENIOR Guangdong Province official has been suspended from duty while he is investigated for corruption and accepting bribes. [url=http://www.gabsoft.it]tiffany outlet[/url] But with the increase of cold fronts, the lowest temperature this weekend could be 14 degrees in the morning. [url=http://www.loofenlee.com]Tiffany Jewelry[/url] It's particularly important that you sent a very clear message to the Chinese public that the United States will keep its word and its obligations with regard to its government debt, it will preserve the safety, liquidity and value of US Treasuries, Wen told Biden. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/airmax.php]air max cher[/url] It was the first year that Shanghai has exceeded 90 percent of days meeting the top two quality levels. Subscription Free Sign-up Visitors Newspaper PDF Website access 1-week trial limited Mobile apps Newsletter Price RMB 820/year RMB 500/year Free Free MORE than 924,000 people went to visit their deceased family members' graves yesterday as tomb-sweeping hit its peak, as expected, on the Winter Solstice Day, said the Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau.

Officials said the mushroom was at least two years old and was sent to the factory for "salvation" by mixing them with sodium nitrite and hydrochlorous acid, two toxic chemicals for industrial use, which can give the mushroom an appetizing pink look but pose hazard to the health of its buyers. [url=http://www.boxepos.co.uk]mulberry outlet[/url] MOST parts of southwest China will experience snow or rain over the next three days, as the cold wave continues, the National Meteorological Center forecast today. [url=http://www.orylis.fr]parajumpers paris[/url] Li, his wife and three employees have been busy making moon cakes for more than half a month, and sometimes they can not rest until midnight. SEVEN workers were killed when a huge slurry pool at a construction site in Zhejiang Province collapsed on Wednesday. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/hollisterpascher.php]hollister femme[/url] Santiago Castillo, a senior China correspondent for Agencia EFE who has just returned from the Expo, told the meeting that the event is "amazing" and in many ways very "impressive" with its unprecedented scale. [url=http://www.leboileau.fr]abercrombie pas[/url] The living space per capita was 17.2 square meters by the end of 2009 amid the rocketing housing prices.

A CHINESE-American man who was sentenced to eight years for selling more than 200 human skulls to foreign countries has appealed in Beijing. [url=http://www.jobsmidsouth.com]Pandora Jewelry[/url] Foxconn denies the allegations but has been under great public pressure to improve conditions at its mainland operations. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/monclerpascher.php]mocnler pas[/url] Other animals in the zoo, treated no better than those tigers, are always hungry and the zoo keepers have complained about meager wages, local media said. Many employees said the zoo owed them salaries for a year. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/abercrombie.php]abercrombie and[/url] After the Expo closes, the Expo Center will be open to the public and open for all kinds of exhibitions, conferences, weddings and banquets in the magnificent Gold Hall. We've been preparing since the second half of last year but no one has come to stay, said resident Wu Guoxiang, 58. "The only visitors were some tourism delegations and they sat down for just a while and then left."

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by pinpplteyro on Dec 20, 2014

in qualche modo la prova che l’imperativo categorico del suo governo è quello di cambiare l’Italia

Underground inns such as Zhang's and entertainment venues which usually did not meet fire control standards or had no easy means of escape could result in fatal accidents as large numbers of people gathered at such places, said Vice Mayor Shen Jun yesterday. [url=http://www.londonfrenchrfc.co.uk]womens ugg boots[/url] In announcing the loan, the Changxing Island Development Office did not say where it would get the rest of the funds for the larger campaign. [url=http://www.heartsinmind.net]Tiffany outlet[/url] The university stated it bears no connection with the Beijing-based recruiter claiming to promote a program under the university's School of Continuing Education. [url=http://www.permagrass.co.uk]moncler outlet[/url] Twelve leading gang members were jailed from five to 20 years for organized crime, violence, blackmail, illegal mining, operating gambling businesses, rape, illegal detention and disrupting public services, Weng'an County People's Court announced on December 31. Li Kai, a Hubei Province native, divorced Wang Na in 2007. Wang, a sales manager of a local hotel, became involved with a businessman surnamed Zhang, a frequent guest.

The hand-foot-mouth disease cases first emerged in Zilou Village in Tonglao Town on July 7 and the epidemic soon spread to other villages. [url=http://www.dondusang-pontivy.fr]veste moncler pas cher[/url] The terminal will connect with the Hongqiao Transport Hub, which is still under construction, via three floors, including one with a station on Metro Line 2's western extension. [url=http://www.sceneonscreen.co.uk]ugg boots uk[/url] In 2010, investment in rail sector fixed assets reached 842.6 billion yuan, and this year the ministry plans to complete basic infrastructure investment worth 600 billion yuan, the newspaper said, citing unidentified sources. [url=http://www.saveursolidaire.net]wholesale nike nfl jerseys[/url] However the teacher Ding denied that bribery was involved and said his refusal to let the boys back into the classroom was in line with the school's strict management policies. [url=http://www.eleonoraweb.it]Peuterey Sito Ufficiale Italia[/url] The General Office of the State Council, China's Cabinet, has urged relevant departments to get fully prepared to cope with possible inconveniences and bad impact caused by a full solar eclipse which is forecasted to occur on Wedneday.

It says China has never deployed nuclear weapons in foreign territory and has always "exercised the utmost restraint" in the development of nuclear weapons, and has never participated in any form of nuclear arms race, nor will it ever do so. [url=http://www.thejtinn.com]coach factory outlet[/url] For the first three months of the Expo, Shanghai reported 121 days, or 98.4 percent of the total from May 1 to August 31, of excellent or good air quality - the top two in the air quality scale. [url=http://www.stemtechlabs.com]Tiffany Jewellery outlet[/url] Last week, 30 of its pupils were diagnosed as having swine flu and the school, which has 1,314 students, was closed. HEAVY rain is expected to fall on southern China over the next 24 hours, offering relief to the country's drought-hit regions, China's meteorological authority said today. [url=http://www.unitedhorsemansfront.net]cheap nfl jerseys[/url] The "experience area" will cover 8,000 square meters and will feature interactive games, inviting visitors to plan Chinese cities. Crimes committed by non-local minors have risen in recent years due to lack of migrant youth management, said Cai Zhong, director of the Shanghai Community Youth Affairs Office.

by bletuuzer on Dec 20, 2014

e l’hanno dovuto fare ?anche in direzione avversa a quanto si discusse alla Convenzione e sul Trattato di Lisbona

A gift store attendant in Zone B said he had not expected an increased number of visitors to queue up after the shop temporarily closed one of its three gates to control numbers. [url=http://www.gabsoft.it]tiffany milano[/url] Some commuters may use the second phase of Metro Line 8 which will start early next month, with the new phase connecting Shangnan and downtown Puxi. [url=http://www.loofenlee.com]Tiffany Outlets[/url] Taking Germany as an example, its exports to China hit a record high to 76 billion euros last year, Wen said. "The United States saw its total exports down by 17 percent, while its exports to China fell by only 0.22 percent." [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/airmax.php]air max[/url] We encountered similar problems when using the new buses four years ago, said Wu, "But when the drivers gained experience and learnt when and how to charge their buses properly and efficiently, all the problems disappeared." The woman, surnamed Yi, told Xia that she was a fan of modern dance and wanted to take some pictures to publish an album for herself.

Luo Shuifang, 48, asked the Chongqing Evening News to help find her missing daughter who would be 20 years old now, the paper reported today. [url=http://www.boxepos.co.uk]mulberry outlet[/url] Tang told police he and his friends joked about whether he could pull off the stunt in a Metro station, and said his friends agreed to give him 100 yuan if he succeeded. [url=http://www.orylis.fr]parajumpers pas[/url] A GANG boss who lent money at high interest rates and then used kidnapping and extortion to force debtors to pay it back has been jailed for 15 years, Jiading District People's Court said yesterday. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/hollisterpascher.php]hollister pas[/url] Smoking in the shopping center, where most of the products on sale are flammable, plush toys for example, is banned under the city's laws on smoking at public places. [url=http://www.leboileau.fr]abercrombie and[/url] Floods, including landslides and mud-rock flow, caused 80 percent of the deaths. Four of the fatalities were caused by forest fires, the ministry said. The disasters last month affected 22.5 million people and about 126,000 people were relocated by the government, it said.

China has pledged to reduce emissions by rejecting construction projects that pollute too much and by developing new technologies to curb greenhouse gases. [url=http://www.jobsmidsouth.com]Pandora Jewelry[/url] Visitors to the 2010 World Expo can go to the Expo site at Line 9's Madang Road Station where ticket and security check points will be set. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/monclerpascher.php]doudoune moncler[/url] I told them how important it was to test the water quality, to use the least pesticide and to use organic fertilizer. Some time later, they understood my way and we began to work together happily. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/abercrombie.php]hollister france[/url] In the video clip, the woman teacher surnamed Chen kept slapping, jabbing and pushing the tearful girl in the classroom of Tianma Arts Kindergarten in front of 10 other childeren. The man - in his late 30s or early 40s, carrying the No. 18 bidding card and reportedly from neighboring Zhejiang Province - refused to make any comment about the deal or himself and left the auction room soon after signing documentation.

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by pinussteyro on Dec 21, 2014

spostando il peso delle responsabilità sul Consiglio europeo?

-- Health authorities should enhance the monitoring on unknown pneumonia and influenza cases, set up an instant-report system and treat people promptly by early detection; [url=http://www.gabsoft.it]tiffany outlet[/url] Zhang has kept pressure on officials to take legal action against the culprit, despite being attacked by 10 unidentified men on the evening on December 14 in Beijing, as reported by Shanghai Daily. [url=http://www.loofenlee.com]Tiffany Online[/url] Although the government has not directly apologized to the victims, presidential spokesman Edwin Lacierda said it had repeatedly expressed its regret. "How often does one have to apologize?" he told reporters last week. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/airmax.php]air max[/url] A Zhejiang Province-based private company signed an agreement yesterday with the Swiss side after winning an online auction last Friday for the right to reconstruct the pavilion for 7.02 million yuan (US$1.05 million). Expo had recorded more than 59 million visitors by yesterday, while 65 million tickets have been sold. Expo organizers earlier said about 18 million standard tickets had yet to be used by the end of August. The number is much lower now, officials said.

Tuesday night's disaster ended a record 2,102 days of safe air travel in China - 69 months without an accident. [url=http://www.boxepos.co.uk]mulberry outlet[/url] Tuitions charged by the illegal kindergarten for this semester had been returned to parents, they said. [url=http://www.orylis.fr]parajumpers homme[/url] When the rain eases today across most of the city, temperatures will rise to 15 degrees, but another cold front tomorrow will bring chillier days of 6 degrees. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/hollisterpascher.php]hollister femme[/url] Visitors can enter the special rooms only after security guards open the doors with a swipe card. The club had cameras Monitoring cameras were installed in every corner of the club and emeregency exits so guest could flee in a raid, according to the report. [url=http://www.leboileau.fr]abercrombie and[/url] Chen owned several properties and companies in Shanghai and worked and lived in the city while Wu stayed in Wuhan. Wu asked to move to Shanghai to join Chen but he was not interested in the proposal.

By July this year, Li allegedly ran more then 100 bus routes covering Chongqing's 11 districts and counties. He also owned about 500 buses and hundreds of cabs, the newspaper said. [url=http://www.jobsmidsouth.com]Cheap Pandora[/url] The province is giving away 300,000 tickets to its tourist attractions with a total value of 10 million yuan (US$1.48 million) to Expo visitors in gratitude for the help that came from around the world after the disaster. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/monclerpascher.php]doudoune moncler[/url] China's People's Liberation Army Navy's inshore defense strategy and the defensive nature of the country's national defense policy will not change despite the country's development of advanced weaponry, Yang said. [url=http://www.poelesetdesign.fr/abercrombie.php]hollister france[/url] The bullet trains are expected to complete the 1,318-kilometer journey from Shanghai to the capital in four hours - half the current time. Each train will carry around 1,000 passengers. The upper reaches of Yangtze River covers an area of 1 million square kilometers, 60 percent of which was covered by the Three Gorges monitoring system and another 20 percent was covered by systems of the Dadu and Yalong rivers.

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by pinbsoteyro on Dec 21, 2014

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